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First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

The Islamic Republic of Iran

The Islamic Republic of Iran is located in Southwest Asia, between the northeasterns coast of the Persian Gulf and the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. It is a large country with a surface of ​​1.648.195 km² (about three times as much as France or as much as a fifth of the United States of America.) Iran is the 13th biggest country in the world. Internationally known as Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran is a multicultural country with many ethnic and linguistic groups.

Iran has a wide diversity in all its aspects, even in terms of relief and climate: Northern Iran, located south of the Caspian Sea where the altitude falls 28 m below the planetary ocean, is crossed by a narrow, but very high mountain chain, Alborz, which receives a lot of rainfall annually, and is gradually lost to the border with Afghanistan. The highest peaks are Damavand (5.671m), located north of Tehran, Sabalan (4.880m), northwest of the capital and south of Tonekabon. In this part of the country meadows and forests occupy large areas. In the northern areas of Elburz, agricultural land is mainly used for cereal crops, tea plantations and rice crops. Forests in Mazandaran and Guilan are a raw material for Asalem and Neka woodworking enterprises. The shores of the Caspian Sea, with sandy beaches and picturesque scenery, are among the most sought-after places for rest and tourism in Iran. The landscape is very impressive. Iran has the shape of a distorted square, as if it had been melted and then strengthened again. On the western edge, from the border with Turkey to the Gulf of Oman, lie the Zagros Mountains, which form an obvious boundary, that some geopolitics analysts regard as the true frontier of the Western world. However, Iranian historical monuments extend far to both sides of this mountain range. The highest peak, Zard Kuh-e Bakhtiari, has 4.309 m in altitude. The southern edge of the mountains is edged by the crest of the Indian Ocean. Due to the abundance of limestone and other soluble rocks, there are numerous caves in Iran that are attractions and possible study objects for both ordinary tourists and speleologists. The most famous caves are located in Azerbaijan, Kurdistan, near Hamadan, in the province of Isfahan and in the surroundings of Tehran.

The climate is overly continental, with very hot and dry summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall.

The Islamic Republic of Iran is divided into 30 provinces.

The most important cities are: Mashhad, Isfahan, Tabriz, Shiraz, Ahwaz, Bakhtaran, Qom, Urumije, Rasht and Hamadan.

The capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran is Tehran.

The population of Islamic Republic of Iran is about 75 million. The population of Iran consists of: Persians - 65%; Azeris and other Turkish peoples - about 20%; Khuzi - 8%; Arabs - 2%, Armenians, etc. Most of the inhabitants are settled in the north and northwest of the country, with strong concentrations along the Caspian Sea coast, around the capital, and the Azerbaijan Bakhtari and Azerbaijan Khavari provinces. Other major population concentrations are found in the northern sector of the Persian Gulf coast and around Mashhad.

About 1/3 of Iran's Islamic Republic (the 3 deserts) is almost uninhabited.

Birth rate in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 40 ‰ and mortality rate is 8 ‰.

The urban population accounts for 57% of the country's total population.

The official language in the Islamic Republic of Iran is Persian (Farsi).

Official writing in Iran is based on the Arabic alphabet.

The major religion in Iran is Islam. Approximately 98% of Iranians belong to this religion. Most of the Iranian Muslims are Shiite, Shih Islam being a state religion. Other religions other than Islam are Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, Bahá'í, and Zoroastrianism. Today there are small Zoroastrian communities in Iran with their own temples and priests. Many times, non-Muslim people in Iran are being assaulted and subjected to forced conversion.

With large oil reserves, Iran has increased its production in recent years, aiming to regain its place as one of the world's leading producers and exporters in the field, as it was before 1980. It has significant oil refining capacities and targets their expansion. It has vast reserves of natural gas that are being increasingly exploited.

Although the country has a president, the country's supreme leader is Ali Khamenei, a highly respected man whose views are shared by the vast majority of the people.

The currency of the country is the Rial.       

Political and social instability
President Ahmadinejad has reminded many times how important the growth of the population is. At the same time, the Iranian leader criticized families with fewer children. In his opinion, these couples follow the example of the West, both in terms of family and lifestyle. Last but not least, Ahmadinejad still believes that only the rise of the population can lead to the strengthening of the nation.

Between 1981-1991, the Iranian population was enriched by 18 million people, an increase of 3.5-4%. In the following years, the growth rate was significantly lower. By comparison, in Germany the population decreases each year by 0.1%.

The Tehran government claims that the birth control policy set by the previous ministry and put into practice by the health ministry is to blame for lower yields in recent years. At the time, health care representatives walked from house to house to keep people informed of contraceptive methods. There is also the opinion of sociologists who put the current situation on the emancipation of women and the migration of rural population to the city. In the last decades, urban families have changed their lifestyle, replacing the traditional family in which many children were born with couples with less offspring. As a background to these transformations, Ahmadinejad portrays a grim scenario: "Shrinking the population is a threat to Iran. A nation must be fertile, capable of securing its future," the Iranian president said. The supreme spiritual leader, Ali Khamenei, holds the question: "The young generation is decisive for the evolution of our country. The birth control policy will have to be revised." If our growth rate is just as low, our future is jeopardized. " The two leading figures of Iran would like a population of at least 150 million people.

The reasons why the Iranian people want to leave
In the UN Human Development Index (HDI), Iran ranks 88th. The country is facing hardships due to its large population. Water supply is extremely difficult, every fifth Iranian lives below the poverty line and the unemployment rate is huge. An even greater number of inhabitants would lead to an aggravation of the situation.

Asylum countries
As a result of the persecution of Iranian relatives of fugitives, the hope of fleeing citizens to return home decreases as tensions continue, mainly with the United States of America. Iranian refugees are not poor people. Those who leave have reasons that concern physical integrity, as they struggle to stay alive.

In Romania, Iranian asylum seekers are in a very small numbers, only those being persecuted in their country.

UNHCR Romania records Iranians who want to settle there, most of them having relatives here.

Attachments:
Download this file (report-Republica-Islamica-Iran.pdf)Report[Romanian language]

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