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First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is located in South Asia, in the basin of the Indus river. It borders Afghanistan to the Northwest, China to the North, India to the East and Iran to the West, with a maritime border with the Arabian Sea in the South.

The capital of Pakistan is the city of Islamabad. The most important cities are Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi and Hyderabad.

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is composed of four provinces, a federal capital and federal tribal areas. Reality shows that these tribal areas of the country are uncontrollable by state institutions. The provinces of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan are: Balochistan, Punjab, Sindh and the North-West Frontier Provinces (NWFP).

The surface of ​​Pakistani territory is 803.940 km². The population numbers about 208 million inhabitants, 6th in the world. The literacy rate is below 50%. Kindergartens, schools, high schools and faculties are guarded by the army, surrounded by barbed wire.

The population is made up of Pakistani (Indo-Aryan), Punjabi, Urdu, Sindhi, Pashto, Baluchi and Afghans. The population is concentrated in the fertile plain of the Indus River and in the eastern part of its basin. The birth rate is 37 ‰ and the mortality rate is 7.8 ‰.

The urban population is 34%. In 2013, about 65 years after gaining independence from British India, Pakistani people have a lower life expectancy and higher infant mortality than the Muslims left in India after separation, and a lower level of literacy than that of Indian Muslims, though the latter are the poorest and least developed population group in the Indian state.[1]

Regarding the geographical area, the Himalayas on the territory of Pakistan extend through the Hindukush Mountains with the tip of Tirich Mir (7.700 m) in the North. In the West, Balochistan is an extension of the great Iranian plateau that continues in Pakistan in the form of semiarid highlands and heights, with an altitude of 3.000 m. The valley of the Indus is in the East - a plain with an altitude below 200 m. The South is a part of the Thar Desert that it shared with India. The Indus River, with a length of 3180 km, has an important river basin for irrigation. The affluents of Indus spring from the Himalayas: Sutlej, Chenab, Jelub, Beas and Rabi (the area called Punjab). To the South, where Indus spills, a large delta, called Sind, forms. The river network is complemented by a river network of irrigation channels, among the oldest and largest in the world.

The climate is arid. The average annual temperature is 26° C and 4° C on the plateaus; 31° C and 17° C on the plain. Precipitation: 250 mm/year at Quetta; 510 mm/year in the plain; 1.020 mm/year in the mountains.

Forests occupy about 3% of the territory, especially in the mountains located in the northern part of the country. The vegetation is xerophilous in the desert and steppe on the Indus valley.

The official language in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is Urdu. English is also very popular. The population also uses non-indigenous local languages.

The coin is Pakistani rupees.

Political and social instability
In 1947, the British Colony of India became a dominion and divided into the Indian Union (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim). In 1947, Pakistan proclaimed its independence in the Commonwealth. Between 1947 and 1949 there was a conflict between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir problem. In 1956 the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is proclaimed (a federation from two provinces that compose it). In 1958, the martial law was established. In 1962, a new constitution and a presidential regime were adopted. In 1965 there was a new Indo-Pakistani war. In 1966, East Pakistan called for its autonomy. In 1971, secession was achieved and the Bangladesh state was born, with India intervening to support it. Between 1971 and 1977, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto puts Islamic socialism into practice and nationalizes agriculture and banks, leaves the Commonwealth and SEATO (military pact) and begins a religious-conservative agitation.

A military coup hit in 1977 and in 1979 former Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was executed. Islamic law was established. In 1986, martial law was proclaimed.

The conflict between fundamentalists and adherents of liberalism in the country is getting worse. Thus, in 1990, the Islamic Democratic Alliance succeeded in winning early elections. In 1993 the country underwent a new political crisis. After early parliamentary elections, Benazir Bhutto returned as head of government.

Pakistani government is a presidential republic, according to the 1973 constitution (updated in 1985). Legislative power is exercised by the president and the Federal Legislative (Parliament composed of Senate and National Assembly), as executive government, a cabinet appointed by the National Assembly.

The reasons why the Pakistan people want to leave
For decades, there is a certain reality in Pakistan. Terrorism of Islamic origin threatens people's lives and even the existence of the Pakistani state. Pakistan is undoubtedly the place where the most dangerous Muslim radical groups in the world are based: al-Qaeda, the Taliban group, the Haqqani network, Lashkar, al-Taiba. Although Pakistan has very strong and numerous military and intelligence services, these groups cannot be annihilated, although authorities are taking such steps. These groups, created by the Pakistani state in the past to be used in the struggle with India in Kashmir, have become a threat to the Pakistani state. They have been radicalized and became very hard to destroy. The Taliban groups execute politicians, carry out hundreds of deaths, and control provinces with millions of people. These people living in the Taliban-controlled provinces experience a continuous nightmare. The need to flee is obvious, being the only escape, even if it means leaving behind all of life's earning.

Asylum countries
Across the country, citizens’ hope of returning home decreases as the crisis continues and deepens every day. Pakistani refugees are poor, fighting for life.

In Romania, Pakistani asylum seekers are those who are persecuted in their country.

UNHCR also highlights Pakistani people who want to establish themselves in other European countries, except Romania. Their vast majority want to get to Germany.

Attachments:
Download this file (report-Republica-Islamica-Pakistan.pdf)Report[Romanian language]

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