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First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a mainland landlocked country located in South Asia. Its neighbors are Iran to the West, Pakistan to the South, Pakistan and China to the East, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan to the North.

75% of the area is covered with mountains, centered in the Hindu Kush Mountains, the second largest mountain range in the world. Many peaks are over 6100 m high. Most of the rest of the country contains arid plains that flank the mountain core in the north, west and south. The Southwestern Plateau is largely desolate, uninhabited, with most of the population concentrating in the fertile valleys around Ghiuri, Bamian and Jalalabad.

Afghanistan has a continental, dry climate with four distinct seasons. Temperatures vary greatly by season and region. Winters bring snow, and summers are hot and dry. Autumn is moderate. The average amount of precipitation is about 340 mm/year and decreases mainly in the spring.

The surface is 652.230 km2.

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has a population of 34.940.837 (2018).

The capital of the country is Kabul, which has 4 million inhabitants. The most important cities are Kandahar, Heart, Mazar-e Sharif, Kunduz and Jalalabad.

Religions present in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan are: Muslims 84.7-89.7%, Shiite 10-15%, and other religions 0.3%.

The official languages ​​are: Dari, Persian (80%) and Pashto (47%). Other languages spoken in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan are: Uzbek, Turkmen, Urdu, Pasha, Nuristan and Arab.

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces, called welayate, such as Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Daykundi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghor, Helmand, Kadahar, Kunar, Kunduz, Laghman, Logar, Nangarhar, Nimroz, Nuristan, Paktika, Paktia, Panjshir, Parwan, Samangan, Sar-e Pul, Takhar, Uruzgan, Wardak and Zabul.

The national currency is Afghani.

Political and social instability
There is no single official figure for the total number of civilians killed in the war since 2001, but estimates for some years or certain periods have been published by several organizations. According to a UN report, the Taliban are accountable for 76% of civilian Afghanistan victims in 2009[1]. A UN report in June 2011 stated that 2777 civilians were killed in 2010 and insurgents are responsible for 75% of civilian casualties.[2] Another United Nations report issued in July 2011 said that "1462 non-combatants died" during the first six months of 2011, and insurgents are responsible for 80% of deaths.[3] In 2011, a record number of 3021 civilians were killed in attacks, the fifth consecutive annual increase. Very few people in Afghanistan were not affected by the armed conflict. Those with direct personal experience make up 60% of the population, and others also say they have suffered a number of difficulties. In total, almost everyone (96%) was affected in some way, either personally or as a result of the wider consequences of the armed conflict.

Since the coalition's intervention in 2001, more than 5.7 million refugees have returned to Afghanistan, but 2.2 million Afghans are still refugees in 2013, and in January 2013, the UN estimated 547.550 persons were displaced within the country, a 25% increase from 447.547 displaced persons in January 2012, according to a figure declared by Amnesty International that said hundreds of Afghans were forced to leave their homes during that year.[4]

The reasons why the Syrian population wants to leave
The main reason why some people want to leave is war.

Asylum countries
UNHCR Romania records many cases of refugees from the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.[5]


[1] http://www.weeklystandard.com/blogs/taliban-responsible-76-deaths-afghanistan-un
[2] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-13914252
[3] http: // www. un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=39036&Cr=Afghan&Cr1
[4] http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/afghans-fleeing-war-find-misery-urban-slums-2012-02-23
[5] https://www.unhcr.org/ro/4838-refugiati-afgani-din-siria-fugind-de-conflict-ajung-romania.html

Attachments:
Download this file (report-Republica-Islamica-Afganistan.pdf)Report[Romanian language]

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