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First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

The Republic of Iraq

The Republic of Iraq is a Middle East state, located in Southwest Asia, at the confluence of the Tigris and the Euphrates, including also Southern Kurdistan as a region. It has borders with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to the South. Jordan is in the West, Syria in the Northwest, Turkey to the North and Iran to the East. The Republic of Iraq has a narrow coastal zone at Umm Qasr in the Persian Gulf. It ranks second after Saudi Arabia in terms of total oil reserve. In 2003, it was invaded by the troops of more than 50 coalitions, under the leadership of the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain.

The country's surface is 438.317 km².

Under the Iraqi constitution, the governing system is Republican.

The country's capital is Baghdad. The most important cities are Basra, Erbil, Kirkuk and Karbala. The administrative division is governorates governed by a total of 18 governors.

The national currency is the Iraqi dinar.

Iraq has two official languages: Arab and Kurdish.

Proportion of ethnic groups: 70-80% Arabs, 15-20% Kurds, Turkmen, 5% Assyrians and other groups.

The proportion of confessional groups: Muslim (60-65% Shiite, 32-37% Sunni), 0.8% Christians, and 3% Yezidi, Mandeans and Yarisani.

Iraq has 38.146.025 inhabitants (2016).[1]

The current territory of Iraq, known in antiquity as Mesopotamia, was the cradle of ancient civilizations: Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian. In the years 635-637 it was conquered by the Arabs. They founded Baghdad (762-763), which became the center of the Arab Abbasid Caliphate. The Mongolian (1258), Turkmen (early 15th century) and Persian (1499) conquests followed. Between 1534-1918, Iraq was a province of the Ottoman Empire. During the First World War, it was occupied by English troops; in 1920, the League of Nations gave United Kingdom the mandate to administer this territory. In 1921 Iraq became a kingdom. On October 13, 1932, it gained state independence and was admitted to the League of Nations. On 14 July 1958, following the coup d'état led by General Abdel Karim Kassem, the monarchy was abolished and the republic established. Other state coups took place in 1963 and 1968. On 17 July 1968, the country's leadership was taken over by the Ba'ath Arab Socialist Party.

Political and social instability
The Saddam Hussein regime was removed from office in April 2003.

The sovereignty transfer on the new interim government ceremony took place on June 28, 2004. On January 30, 2005, the first free, post Saddam, elections took place. Adoption of a new constitution (October 2005, following a referendum), the election of members of Council of Representatives (CoR December 2005) and the formation of the executive body (summer 2006), led to the transition of Iraq to its first form of constitutional government. In January 2009 and April 2013 provincial council elections were carried out in all governorates of Iraq, with the exception of Kurdistan Region and Kirkuk governorate. In March 2010, parliamentary elections took place and the new government was approved in December 2010.

In April 2014, the last parliamentary elections were held, with Haider Jawad Kadhim al-Abadi taking over the government.

Since 2014, Iraq is engaged in a military campaign against the terrorist faction Daesh to regain lost territory in the Western and Northern part of the country.  Also, security in the Republic of Iraq is affected by regional developments, particularly by the conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic.

The reasons why the Iraqi population wants to leave
In Iraq there are daily attacks and abductions. There are many confrontations between Sunni and Shiites. Despite ample attempts, these attacks cannot be stopped.

Asylum countries
In Romania, Iraqi asylum seekers are persecuted in their country.
UNHCR Romania has many such cases.[2]
UNHCR also reports other cases of Iraqis who want to settle in other European countries.


Download this file (report-Republica-Irak.pdf)Report[Romanian language]


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