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First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

Guinea

Socio-economic and geopolitical aspects
The Republic of Guinea is located in West Africa and borders with Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast, Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Historically, there were Portuguese coastal posts on the slave route to the American continent since the 15th century. Guinea was colonized by France from 1891 to 1958. After its independence, there were two dictatorial regimes in the country. The first, directed by Ahmed Sékou Touré (1958-1984) and the second under the command of Lansa Conté (1984-2008). After the death of the latter, the Army made a coup d'etat. A year later the captain who had led the coup died and the transition began. In 2010, the first democratic elections took place. They were presidential elections in which the leader of the opposition won. In 2013, legislative elections were held. That same year the devastating Ebola epidemic began in the Republic of Guinea, and it was not extinguished until 2016. Anyway, the international indicators of quality of democracy are still considering the Republic of Guinea in intermediate categories such as "Partially Free "(Freedom House) or even as an authoritarian regime (The Economist). In fact, in the Republic of Guinea some civil and political freedoms are not guaranteed.

According to the latest available data, the Guinean population is 12,608,590 inhabitants. It is a very ethnically fragmented population, with at least 24 relevant ethnic groups among which stand out the Fulani (Peul) 32.1%, Malinke 29.8%, Susu 19.8%, Guerze 6.2%, Kissi 4.7% and Toma 2.8%. The Susu people live mainly in the coastal area of ​​the country (where Conakry, the capital, is located). The Peul live in the center and the Malinke in the east. The official language is French although each ethnic group has its own language. The Susu have historically governed the country, and since the eighties they did it in collaboration with the Malinke. The Peul have always lack political power.

The Republic of Guinea is one of the countries with the lowest level of human development according to the United Nations (in 2016 it ranked183 out of 188 countries). The average life expectancy is 59.2 years, and the average number of years of schooling is 2.6. Inequalities between men and women are important, especially in education. In addition, the ratio of adolescent birth is the fourth highest in the world (UNDP 2016: 217). It is also one of the countries with the highest rates of child marriage, although it has recently been criminalized by the Guinean law.

Current conflicts and their causes
Guinea has always been heavily influenced by civil and political conflicts in its neighbouring countries, especially in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau and Côte d'Ivoire, in particular in the last decade of the 20th century and to a lesser extent from 2001 to 2005.In September 2009, there was a massacre at a stadium where an opposition rally was being held in the recently inaugurated Guinean transition. According to Human Rights Watch that day between 150 and 200 people died. Previously in 2006 and 2007 the democratic opposition had also been violently repressed with around 150 people dead and more than 1700 injured. These crimes have not yet been investigated or tried.

Push factors
Lack of Civil and Political Liberties and Rights

Despite the fact that the 2010 Constitution recognizes the freedom of the press, the Penal Code of 2016 introduces penalties of 5 years of prison for those persons who defame or insult a public figure, thus cutting short this freedom. The freedom of assembly and association is not guaranteed since gathering that are not communicated are considered illegal and are often violently dispersed by the security forces. Women's rights are often curtailed. Guinean law allows husbands to prohibit women from working. Female genital mutilation is common and a significant percentage of women, girls and boys are victims of sexual trafficking in other African or European countries. In addition, child labour of Guinean children has been registered in neighbouring countries.

Human Rights Violations

According to the 2017 Amnesty International annual report, the main human rights violations in Guinea are related to the security forces. In 2016, several protests were violently suppressed. Many activists and opponents have been arrested and cases of torture were registered. In addition, in the Republic of Guinea  the security forces enjoy impunity.

Consequences of violence or terror on people
Guinea has traditionally been a host country for refugees from neighbouring countries fleeing conflicts, especially from Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast. However, since 2008, when the Lansa Conté dictatorship ended, the number of Guinean civilians seeking asylum in the European Union has been growing progressively. In 2016, the figure doubled compared to 2015.

Generally the main country of destination for Guinean asylum seekers was France, but in 2016 that figure was reversed and became Germany, and especially Italy with more than 6000 applications. A year earlier Italy had received only 1675 applications.

References
Informes de Amnistía Internacional sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Guinea, Disponibles en: https://www.amnesty.org/en/search/?country=38602&contentType=2564&sort=date
Informe Mundial de Human Rights Watch sobre Marruecos y Sahara occidental, Disponible en: https://www.hrw.org/es/world-report/country-chapters/298235
Informe de Freedom House sobre la República de Guinea: https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2017/guinea

Attachments:
Download this file (report-guinea.pdf)Report[Spanish language]

Partners

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