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First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

Gambia

The Gambia
Country Name: The Gambia
Capital city: Banjul
Land Area: 11.295 Square Kilometres 
Population: 1.8 million
Languages: English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula
Major religions: Islam, Christianity
Life expectancy: 58 years (men), 60 years (women)
Currency: Gambian dalasi
Borders with: Senegal 749 km

 

History and Politics
In 1965 The Gambia gained the independence from the British Empire. The economy of the country is based on agriculture, thanks to the fertile land; the Gambia has planned its economic development in a productive structure burdened by the weight of monoculture: the peanut next to subsistence food crops (rice, millet, cassava). However, fisheries and tourism are also relevant, while they are totally dependent on foreign energy supplies.
A large variety of ethnic groups live in the country and many African languages are spoken.
Islam is the main religion, followed by more than 90% of the population, the rest are Christians of various denominations.
The Gambia is a presidential republic with a unicameral legislature. The president is elected by popular vote for renewable five-year terms. 
The country was ruled for 22 years by President Yahya Jammeh, who assumed office in 1994. Yahya Jammeh ruled by force after taking power in the 1994 coup, and, two years later, his post was confirmed by an electoral consultation of dubious transparency. In 2013 he announced the withdrawal of Gambia from the Commonwealth, boiling it as a "neo-colonial" institution. The Gambia ruled by Jammeh was a country where human rights were severely restricted. Mr Jammeh was also known for his virulent opposition to gay rights, having once threatened to behead gay people.   
In elections held in December 2016, President Jammeh was defeated by Adama Barrow, who collected 43.3% of the vote against 39.6% for the incumbent. Adama Barrow, officially came into power on January 19, 2017. The most complicated power grabbing due to the decision of his predecessor to reject the results. After initially conceding defeat and promising a smooth transition, President Jammeh rejected the results. This prompted a strong response from the international community. The United Nations Security Council, the African Union and leaders of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) all called on President Jammeh to accept the results.
In December 2015, President Yahya Jammeh had proclaimed the "Islamic Republic of the Gambia". Immediately after his inauguration, President Barrow proclaimed his intention to delete the appellative of "Islamic Republic"[1], according to Article 1 of the Constitution that defines The Gambia as a sovereign and laic republic[2].

 

Political and social instability 
The most serious human rights abuses reported included torture, arbitrary arrest, and prolonged pretrial; enforced disappearances of citizens; and government harassment and abuse. Officials routinely used various methods of intimidation to retain power. Other reported human rights abuses included a corrupt and inefficient judiciary; poor prison conditions; denial of due process; restrictions on privacy and freedoms of speech, press, and assembly; corruption; violence against women and girls, including female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C); early and forced marriage; trafficking in persons, including child prostitution; discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex individuals; and child labor. 
The government continued to resist calls to repeal laws that criminalize homosexuality, including an October 2014 law that introduced a series of new “aggravated homosexuality” offenses that impose sentences of up to life in prison. The criminalization of same-sex conduct leaves lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Gambians at risk of arbitrary arrest and detention.
Today, the Gambia continues to face worrying situations of malnutrition among children under five and pregnant and lactating women. It is estimated that 116,899 children under the age of five and pregnant and lactating women are at risk of acute malnutrition. The entire Gambian population is exposed to the contagion of meningitis and malaria, while about 65% are at risk of cholera.

The reasons why people escapes from The Gambia
The Gambia continues to face worrying trends of malnutrition among children under five and in pregnant and lactating women[3].
Despite its size the Gambia - the smallest country on mainland Africa – continuous to rank high on the list of countries from which journalists flee into exile. Since 1994, the year President Yahya Jammeh came to power, an increasing number of journalists have fled the Gambia after being threatened with their lives for daring to produce and share information. Yet to many people the Gambia, and the plight of its journalists, remains largely unknown[4].
With a population of roughly 2 million people, The Gambia is considered a low-income-food deficit with high poverty levels that contribute to the increasing vulnerability of its population. An estimated 71 percent of the population lives below US$2 per day. Gambia’s Human Development Index value for 2015 is 0.452— which put the country in the low human development category— positioning it at 173 out of 188 countries and territories. The cumulative impact of 2011/2012 shocks, and the crop failure in 2014 compounded by increases in commodity prices are having a negative impact on food security trends and livelihoods. According to the Cadre Harmonisé projection issued in November 2015, an estimated 426,819 one quarter of the entire population is considered food insecure of whom 181,858 are in severe conditions.
The most recent survey data that were publically available for Gambia’s Multidimensional Poverty Index estimation refer to 2013. In Gambia, 57.2 percent of the population (1,068 thousand people) are multidimensionally poor while an additional 21.3 percent live near multidimensional poverty (398 thousand people). The breadth of deprivation (intensity) in Gambia, which is the average deprivation score experienced by people in multidimensional poverty, is 50.5 percent[5].
Malnutrition, especially under-nutrition is a major public health concern in The Gambia. According to the WHO classification, the country borders on an emergency threshold with a national global acute malnutrition prevalence of 10.4 percent.

 

Asylum seekers
In 2016, according to official UNHCR data, the total number of asylum applications made worldwide by Gambian citizens amounted to 17.969. Of these, 8.923, equal to 50%, applied in Italy, followed by Germany (equal to 5.787, 32%)[6]. At the end of 2016, there were 15.725 (88%) asylum applications submitted in the EU 28.

GAMBIA 2017, OCSE http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/en/country-notes/gambia
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME. Human Development Reports
http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/GMB


[1] http://www.africarivista.it/gambia-barrow-il-nostro-paese-sara-una-repubblica-non-una-repubblica-islamica/111193/
[2] http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_id=221242
[3] https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/2016_TheGambia_HNO.pdf
[4] https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/gambia/report-gambia/
[5] http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/GMB.pdf
[6] http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/asylum_seekers

Attachments:
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