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First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University


Republic of Senegal

The Republic of Senegal is located in the western Africa, bounded by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the Southeast, Guinea Bissau to the southwest. Senegal also borders the Gambia, a country occupying a narrow sliver of land inside Senegal territory.
Surface: 196.712 km²
Population: 15,4 million inhabitants.
Capital: Dakar.
Official language: French
Major religion: Islam
Currency: CFA BCEAO Francs

The climate of Senegal is tropical, with a dry season from November to May, and a rainy season from mid June to mid October, due to the African monsoon, which in summer moves from south to north; hence, the rainfall is more abundant in the south, where it goes from 600 to 1500 mm per year, while in the north and centre, which is part of the Sahel, the annual rainfall is lower than 600 mm.
Consequently, the landscape varies considerably, being semi-desert in the north, while the south is occupied by the savanna.

Storia e Politica
Senegal is subdivided into 14 regions, each administered by a Conseil Regional elected by population weight at the Arrondissement level. The country is further subdivided by 45 departments, 113 arrondissements and by collectivites locales, which elect administrative officers.
With a huge variety of ethnic groups, the Wolof are the largest, then we have the Fula and Toucouleur, the Serer, Jola, Mandinka, Maures, Soninke, Bassari and others smaller communities.
Senegal is also a multilingual country. The number of individual languages listed for Senegal is 38. All are living languages. Of these, 31 are indigenous and 7 are non-indigenous. Furthermore, 3 are institutional, 18 are developing, 7 are vigorous, 8 are in trouble, and 2 are dying. French is the official language but also a lot of people speak their own ethnic language, in Dakar, the language is the Wolof; Pulaar is spoken by the Fulas and Toucouleur; The Serer language is spoken by both Serers and non Serers; Jola languages are spoken in the Casamance[1].
Several languages have the status of ”national languages”: Balanta-Ganja, Hassaniya Arabic, Jola-Fonyi, Mandinka, Mandjak, Mankanya Noon, Pulaar, Serer, Soninke and Wolof. About religion: Islam is the predominant religion in the country, 94% of the population are muslims, the Christian community is composed by 5% of the population.
The main industries include food processing, mining, cement, artificial fertiliser, chemicals, textiles, refining important petroleum and tourism. Exports include fish, chemicals, cotton, fabrics, groundnuts, and calcium phosphate. Principal commercial partners are, India, United States and United Kingdom.
The official currency of Senegal is the West African CFA franc.
Senegal is considered as one of Africa’s model democracies, infact, it has a tradition of stable government and civilian rule.
Hundreds of Senegalese were killed in a local separatist conflict in the southern region of Casamance, but violence was waned since a 2014 ceasefire.
Senegal’s principal party was for 40 years the Socialist Party, its domination came to end in march 2000, when Abdoulaye Wade, the leader of the Senegalese Democratic Party (PDS) and leader of the opposition won the presidency. President Wade advanced a liberal agenda for Senegal, including privatisations and other  market opening measures.
Its current President, Macky Sall has been elected in March 2012.

The reasons why people escapes from Senegal
Although Senegal is the West Africa’s most stable democracy, it is full of desperate people who want to escape poverty. Income per head in the country of 14 million averages just over $1000 a year. Youth unemployment is rampant in a country where half the population is under 18. The World Bank reported that Senegal’s GDP growth is too low for significant poverty reduction. Geographic disparities in poverty exist between rural areas and Dakar, the capital city and largest city in Senegal. In rural areas, 66 percent of residents are considered poor compared to 23 percent of residents in Dakar. Additionally, the general poverty line in Dakar is almost two times higher than it is in rural areas.
Senegal’s Human Development Index value for 2015 is 0.494— which put the country in the low human development category— positioning it at 162 out of 188 countries and territories.
The most recent survey data that were publically available for Senegal’s Multidimensional Poverty Index estimation refer to 2014. In Senegal, 51.9 percent of the population (7,621 thousand people) are multidimensionally poor while an additional 18.1 percent live near multidimensional poverty (2,657 thousand people). The breadth of deprivation (intensity) in Senegal, which is the average deprivation score experienced by people in multidimensional poverty, is 53.5 percent. The MPI, which is the share of the population that is multidimensionally poor, adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations, is 0.278. Burkina Faso and Rwanda have MPIs of 0.508 and 0.253 respectively.
Senegal has a long tradition of emigration. With an estimated 500,000 Senegalese overseas, many families rely on income from a relative abroad.
President Macky Sall’s government has called on European nations to accept more legal migration from Africa. It has also pledged to tackle the traffickers making millions from illegal routes crossing the continent.
Migrants leave by bus to Marocco from Dakar’s Pikine neighbourhood, locals say. Otherwise, they travel to the Malian capital Bamako and head north to the desert town of Gas or Agadez in neighbouring Niger where smugglers ferry them across the Sahara, often in open-topped trucks.

Asylum flows
In 2016, according to official UNHCR data, the total number of asylum applications made worldwide by Senegalese citizens amounted to 12.290. Of these, 7.616, equal to 32%, applied in Italy, followed by France (equal to 1.099, 9%)[2]. At the end of 2016, there were 9.510 (77%) asylum applications submitted in the EU 28.
Human Development Index


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