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First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

First intellectual output. Loyola Andalucia University

Pakistan

Main data
Country Name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Capital city: Islamabad
Land Area: 803,940 Square Kilometres
Population: 162.4 million
Borders with: India, China, Iran, Afghanistan and the Arabian Sea.
Main Industries: Textiles, food processing, chemicals, construction materials.
Currency: Rupee (1 Pakistani Rupee = 100 paisa)

History and Politics
In 1947 Pakistan became an independent nation by separating from India. The 1973 Constitution declared Pakistan as a Federal Republic to be known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, recognizing Islam as the religion of the state. Pakistan was to be a Federation of four federating Units, Punjab, Sindh, the NWFP and Balochistan.
The military in Pakistan has played an influential role in mainstream politics, having taken over from civilian governments on four occasions. Military governments were led by (in the 1960s) General Ayub Khan and General Yahya Khan, (in the late 1970s and 1980s) General Zia-ul-Haq, and (from 1999 to 2008), General Pervez Musharraf. In total, military or military backed civilian regimes have been in power for half of the years of the country’s existence. 
Today, Pakistan is divided into 4 provinces, Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as the North West Frontier Province). Additionally, Pakistan also has 3 territories, the Federal Capital (known as the Islamabad Capital Territory), the Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA) and the region of Gilgit-Baltistan.
The politics of Pakistan is also the politics of linguistic groups. Pakistan is a multilingual state, where the Pakhtuns, Sindhi, Balochi, Punjabi, Mohajir and Siraiki identities are expressed through Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Punjabi, Urdu and Siraiki Languages. It is pertinent to mention here that ethnic identities of Pakistan adopted language factor as powerful tool for asserting their power and launched language movements for determining their identity[1].

Political and social instability  
The overall security situation in Pakistan remains volatile, with security incidents and sectarian violence contributing to humanitarian needs. More than 1.2 million Pakistanis have been displaced by insurgencies in north-west Pakistan, according to the UN, and by some estimates, more than 20,000 civilians have been killed. The well-documented attack on schoolgirl Malala Yousafzai[2] and the December 2014 massacre of 100 schoolchildren in Peshawar[3] are prominent examples of the threats ordinary people face from extremists. In addition, Pakistan frequently experiences natural disasters, including drought and floods. Recurring disasters, combined with chronic poverty, limit the ability of vulnerable households to recover and result in additional displacement and humanitarian needs. Since 2010, natural disasters have displaced more than 17 million people across Pakistan, according to the UN. Moreover, the internal humanitarian context is complicated by the massive presence of Afghan refugees: approximately 1.4 million Afghans were residing in Pakistan as of June 2017. Since 2002, UNHCR has facilitated the return of more than 4 million refugees from Pakistan to Afghanistan.
Since its independence (1947), Pakistan has suffered a growing "Islamization". In 1947 Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder father of Pakistan, ratifies the equal rights and duties for citizens "without distinction of race, caste, sex and religious affiliation". He guaranteed "freedom of worship", because it does not depend on "affairs of the state", and promulgates the Constitution of the country which affirms the birth of the "Republic of Pakistan". But a few years later, his directives were disavowed by the country's political and religious leaders.
In 1964, General Ayub Khan repealed the Constitution, proclaimed the martial law and added the prefix "Islamic" to the name of the state. The legislators rename the country "Islamic Republic of Pakistan", adding to the Constitution precepts and directives drawn from the Koran and the Sunnah. Nine years later Islam becomes the state religion. The current Constitution provides that both president and premier are Muslims. 

The reasons why people escapes from Pakistan
The country's recent history is marked by local conflicts perpetrated in the name of religion: since the Shari'ah came into force (the Islamic law based on the precepts of the Koran, in force in Pakistan since 1991)[4], violence and the abuses of Islamic fundamentalists towards minorities have increased exponentially.
Christians and Ahmadis (a religious group that considers itself Muslim, but which Orthodox Muslims believe to be heretical) are the main victims of the terrorist attacks in Pakistan. They are marginalized on the political, economic, social and cultural levels. According to the 1998 Census Report and data compiled by the Ministry of Minorities, there are between 2.05 million and 2.09 million Christians – comprising 42 percent of the total minority population – in Pakistan. Between 82.58 and 909 percent of Christians reportedly live in the province of Punjab, and an estimated 95 percent are ethnically Punjabi. The other minorities are: Hindus/Scheduled Castes (50%), Ahmedis/Qadianis (6%). The Christian community of Pakistan is socio-economically marginalized group. Further, most bonded laborers in Pakistan belong to religious minorities — Hindus in Sindh and Christians in Punjab— and are subjected to human trafficking and sale through debt transfers, physical abuse, and economic exploitation.
Among the other causes of the deterioration in the living conditions of Christians and other religious minorities, the blasphemy law play an dangerous role, and its implementation has caused several kills in the country. Impossible to resolve, as showed by the recent Pakistan’s law minister resignations occurred after weeks of anti-blasphemy protests[5].
Moreover, Movement for Solidarity and Peace in Pakistan (MSP), a human rights organization in the country, is engaged in appeals against forced marriages and conversions of Christian girls and women in Pakistan. MSP’s investigations find that cases of forced marriages/conversions follow a distinctive pattern: Christian girls — usually between the ages of 12 and 25 — are abducted, converted to Islam, and married to the abductor or third party[6]
Classifying refugees by religion, data show that most of those who sought refuge in Europe and in USA are mainly Ahmadis followed by Christians. 

Asylum countries  
In 2016, according to official UNHCR data, the total number of asylum applications made worldwide by Pakistani citizens amounted to 66.890. Of these, 15528, equal to 23%, applied in Germany, followed by Italy (13637 equal to 20%)[7]. At the end of 2016, there were 49,915 asylum applications submitted in the EU 28.
Usually, in order to achieve Italy, Pakistanis walk into Iran, then take a bus to the border with Turkey, where they cross again on foot. They then pick up the Balkan route that begins on the Turkish coast.
A second route is through Lybia. Pakistanis achieve Lybia and from there, through a boat, arrive in Italy.


[1] http://results.pu.edu.pk/images/journal/pols/Currentissue-pdf/Gulshan3.pdf
[2] https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/30/malala-yousafzai-pakistan-court-jailed-attack-terrorism
[3] https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/16/taliban-attack-army-public-school-pakistan-peshawar
[4] http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/legislation/1991/actXof1991.html
[5] https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/27/pakistani-law-minister-quits-zahid-hamid
[6] http://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/msp/pages/162/attachments/original/1396724215/MSP_Report_-_Forced_Marriages_and_Conversions_of_Christian_Women_in_Pakistan.pdf?1396724215
[7] http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/asylum_seekers

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